China Foundry (Jul 2019)

Inclusions in melting process of titanium and titanium alloys

  • Meng-jiang Cen ,
  • Yuan Liu,
  • Xiang Chen

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 16, no. 4
pp. 223 – 231


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This paper summarizes melting methods of titanium and titanium alloy, such as vacuum arc melting (VAR) and electron beam cold hearth melting (EBCHM), and the related inclusions formed when using these melting methods. Low-density inclusions are resulted from contamination of air, and high-density inclusions are caused by refractory elements. The formation process of inclusions was analysed. The removal mechanism of different kinds of inclusions was specified. Low-density inclusions are removed mainly by resolving. This is a comprehensive process containing reaction diffusion. The resolving rate of high-density inclusions is so low that these inclusions are mainly removed by sedimentation. The experiments and physical models of inclusions are detailed. In various melting methods, vacuum arc melting is prominent. However, this method cannot remove inclusions effectively, which usually results in repeat melting. Electron beam cold hearth melting has the best ability of removing inclusions. These results can provide instructions to researchers of titanium and titanium alloys.