Waste Material Adsorbents for Zinc Removal from Wastewater: A Comprehensive Review

International Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2014;2014 DOI 10.1155/2014/347912

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: International Journal of Chemical Engineering

ISSN: 1687-806X (Print); 1687-8078 (Online)

Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation

LCC Subject Category: Technology: Chemical technology: Chemical engineering

Country of publisher: Egypt

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, ePUB, XML

 

AUTHORS

Haider M. Zwain (School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia)
Mohammadtaghi Vakili (School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia)
Irvan Dahlan (School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 14 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

This review examines a variety of adsorbents and discusses mechanisms, modification methods, recovery and regeneration, and commercial applications. A summary of available researches has been composed by a wide range of potentially low-cost modified adsorbents including activated carbon, natural source adsorbents (clay, bentonite, zeolite, etc.), biosorbents (black gram husk, sugar-beet pectin gels, citrus peels, banana and orange peels, carrot residues, cassava waste, algae, algal, marine green macroalgae, etc.), and byproduct adsorbents (sawdust, lignin, rice husk, rice husk ash, coal fly ash, etc.). From the literature survey, different adsorbents were compared in terms of Zn2+ adsorption capacity; also Zn2+ adsorption capacity was compared with other metals adsorption. Thus, some of the highest adsorption capacities reported for Zn2+ are 168 mg/g powdered waste sludge, 128.8 mg/g dried marine green macroalgae, 73.2 mg/g lignin, 55.82 mg/g cassava waste, and 52.91 mg/g bentonite. Furthermore, modification of adsorbents can improve adsorption capacity. Regeneration cost is important, but if consumption of virgin adsorbent is reduced, then multiple economic, industrial, and environmental benefits can be gained. Finally, the main drawback of the already published Zn2+ adsorption researches is that their use is still in the laboratory stage mostly without scale-up, pilot studies, or commercialization.