Optimization of traceable coaxial RF reflection standards with 7-mm-N-connector using genetic algorithms

Advances in Radio Science. 2003;1:15-20


Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Advances in Radio Science

ISSN: 1684-9965 (Print); 1684-9973 (Online)

Publisher: Copernicus Publications

Society/Institution: U.R.S.I. Landesausschuss in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V.

LCC Subject Category: Technology: Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)

Country of publisher: Germany

Language of fulltext: German, English

Full-text formats available: PDF, XML



T. Schrader


Peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 45 weeks


Abstract | Full Text

A new coaxial device with 7-mm-N-connector was developed providing calculable complex reflection coefficients for traceable calibration of vector network analyzers (VNA). It was specifically designed to fill the gap between 0 Hz (DC, direct current) and 250MHz, though the device was tested up to 10GHz. The frequency dependent reflection coefficient of this device can be described by a model, which is characterized by traceable measurements. It is therefore regarded as a “traceable model&quot;. The new idea of using such models for traceability has been verified, found to be valid and was used for these investigations. The DC resistance value was extracted from RF measurements up to 10 GHz by means of Genetic Algorithms (GA). The GA was used to obtain the elements of the model describing the reflection coefficient &#x0393; of a network of SMD resistors. The DC values determined with the GA from RF measurements match the traceable value at DC within 3·10<sup>-3</sup>, which is in good agreement with measurements using reference air lines at GHz frequencies.