Journal Title: PeerJ
ISSN: 2167-8359 (Online)
Publisher: PeerJ Inc.
LCC Subject Category: Medicine
Country of publisher: United States
Language of fulltext: English
Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, XML
Jonathan W.K. Liew
(Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Mun Yik Fong (Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Yee Ling Lau (Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has been an integral part of characterizing the immunity of Anopheles mosquitoes towards Plasmodium invasion. Two anti-Plasmodium factors of Anopheles, thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), play a role in the refractoriness of Anopheles towards Plasmodium infection and are generally expressed during infection. However, these are less studied in Anopheles dirus, a dominant malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, most studies used a single reference gene for normalization during gene expression analysis without proper validation. This may lead to erroneous quantification of expression levels. Therefore, the present study characterized and investigated the expression profiles of TEP1 and NOS of Anopheles dirus during P. berghei infection. Prior to that, the elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1), actin 1 (Act) and ribosomal protein S7 (S7) genes were validated for their suitability as a set of reference genes. TEP1 and NOS expressions in An. dirus were found to be significantly induced after P. berghei infection.