Background: Pediculosis is one of the most common problems in the world, which despite the improvement of the health status, still has a global distribution. Since this disease is usually transmitted through direct (head-to-head) and indirect (using personal belongings of others) contact, conditions of prevalence in populated areas such as schools can cause students to experience physical and psychological problems. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of education based on health belief model on pediculosis prevention in the fifth grade female students in Bafq city in the academic year of 2016 - 2017. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial. The study population included 110 fifth grade female students who were selected by multi-stage sampling method and were randomly divided into two groups of test (55) and control group, (55). First, to determine the prevalence of pediculosis, students were checked to find out if they had Lice and Livestock in their hair and then the required data was collected through a questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model whose validity and reliability had already been confirmed. After their analysis and need assessment, a training program was designed according to the design model and delivered as a lecture, question and answer, and group discussion for students of the experimental group and pamphlets were also distributed among them. Then six weeks after the intervention, the initial questionnaire was completed again by student groups. Data was analyzed using independent t-test, Chi-square, Chi-square, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: There was a positive and significant correlation between head lice preventive behaviors in students and self-efficacy and perceived benefits constructs. Knowledge and constructs of the health belief model predicted 28.7% of behavioral variance that predicted only predictive power of self-efficacy was statistically significant and it was found that the perceived benefits construct indirectly affects the behavior. After the intervention, the mean score of all constructs of the health belief model, knowledge and behavior in the experimental group significantly increased; however there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion: Considering that both constructs of self-efficacy and perceived benefits were behavior predictors and the educational program led to improve the attitude and behavior of students, health-based and belief-based programs can be implemented based on these two constructs to improve students' performance in lice preventive behaviors.