State of blood cells is examined for juveniles of pink and chum salmon sampled from Lesnoy Pugachevsky, Taranaisky and Okhotsky hatcheries in Sakhalin in May-June of 2018 and 2019 and caught in the Ochepukha, Pugachevka and Taranay Rivers during their catadromous migration to the sea. Both hatchery and wild juveniles of both species were characterized by high adaptive capabilities evidenced with high content of young forms of erythrocytes in the blood (17.0–31.0 %), significant portion of lymphocytes (60.8–92.0 %), and small number of neutrophils. The high adaptive capabilities were confirmed in the experiment, when juveniles of pink salmon were placed in the seawater without preliminary acclimation, but noticeable changes in the state of blood cells were not revealed both for wild and hatchery-reared specimens. Proportion of different blood cells was highly variable for juveniles of both artificial and natural origin but was more similar between the fry hatched at the same hatcheries or in the same rivers. A case of increased number of neutrophils was noted in 2019 for certain groups of juveniles, with total increasing of platelets in the blood that was explained by an external influence on the juveniles.