Influence of Fish Oil-Derived n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Changes in Body Composition and Muscle Strength During Short-Term Weight Loss in Resistance-Trained Men

Frontiers in Nutrition. 2019;6 DOI 10.3389/fnut.2019.00102

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Frontiers in Nutrition

ISSN: 2296-861X (Online)

Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.

LCC Subject Category: Technology: Home economics: Nutrition. Foods and food supply

Country of publisher: Switzerland

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, XML

 

AUTHORS

Jordan D. Philpott (Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom)
Niels J. Bootsma (Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom)
Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez (Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom)
David Lee Hamilton (Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom)
David Lee Hamilton (Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia)
Elizabeth MacKinlay (Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom)
James Dick (Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom)
Samuel Mettler (Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland)
Stuart D. R. Galloway (Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom)
Kevin D. Tipton (Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences and Health, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom)
Oliver C. Witard (Physiology, Exercise and Nutrition Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom)
Oliver C. Witard (Centre for Human and Applied Physiological Sciences, School of Basic and Medical Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, United Kingdom)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 12 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

Background: A detrimental consequence of diet-induced weight loss, common in athletes who participate in weight cutting sports, is muscle loss. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) exhibit a protective effect on the loss of muscle tissue during catabolic situations such as injury-simulated leg immobilization. This study aimed to investigate the influence of dietary n-3PUFA supplementation on changes in body composition and muscle strength following short-term diet-induced weight loss in resistance-trained men.Methods: Twenty resistance-trained young (23 ± 1 years) men were randomly assigned to a fish oil group that supplemented their diet with 4 g n-3PUFA, 18 g carbohydrate, and 5 g protein (FO) or placebo group containing an equivalent carbohydrate and protein content (CON) over a 6 week period. During weeks 1–3, participants continued their habitual diet. During week 4, participants received all food items to control energy balance and a macronutrient composition of 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat, and 15% protein. During weeks 5 and 6, participants were fed an energy-restricted diet equivalent to 60% habitual energy intake. Body composition and strength were measured during weeks 1, 4, and 6.Results: The decline in total body mass (FO = −3.0 ± 0.3 kg, CON = −2.6 ± 0.3 kg), fat free mass (FO = −1.4 ± 0.3 kg, CON = −1.2 ± 0.3 kg) and fat mass (FO = −1.4 ± 0.2 kg, CON = −1.3 ± 0.3 kg) following energy restriction was similar between groups (all p > 0.05; d: 0.16–0.39). Non-dominant leg extension 1 RM increased (6.1 ± 3.4%) following energy restriction in FO (p < 0.05, d = 0.29), with no changes observed in CON (p > 0.05, d = 0.05). Dominant leg extension 1 RM tended to increase following energy restriction in FO (p = 0.09, d = 0.29), with no changes in CON (p > 0.05, d = 0.06). Changes in leg press 1 RM, maximum voluntary contraction and muscular endurance following energy restriction were similar between groups (p > 0.05, d = 0.05).Conclusion: Any possible improvements in muscle strength during short-term weight loss with n-3PUFA supplementation are not related to the modulation of FFM in resistance-trained men.