Background. The effect of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and inhalation anesthesia (IA) on the prognosis of breast cancer patients has been controversial. The study is aimed at exploring the effects of different anesthesia methods on the postoperative prognosis of breast cancer patients. Methods. Literature retrieval was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and CNKI databases. The literature topic was to compare the effects of TIVA and IA on the prognosis of patients undergoing breast cancer resection. Two researchers extracted data from the literature independently. This study included randomized controlled trials that evaluated for risk of bias according to the “Risk assessment Tool for Bias in Randomized Trials” in the Cochrane Manual. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the risk of bias in observational studies. The chi-square test was used for the heterogeneity test. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger’s test. If heterogeneity existed between literature, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to explore the source of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was performed by excluding low-quality and different-effect models. Data were statistically analyzed using the Cochrane software RevMan 5.3. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for statistical description. Results. Seven literatures were selected for meta-analysis. There were 9781 patients, 3736 (38.20%) receiving TIVA and 6045 (61.80%) receiving inhalation anesthesia. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) between TIVA and IA breast cancer patients (HR=1.05, 95% CI (0.91, 1.22), Z=0.70, P=0.49). There was no difference in the literature (χ2=6.82, P=0.34, I2=12%), and there was no obvious publication bias. There was no significant difference in recurrence-free survival (RFS) between TIVA and IA patients (HR=0.95, 95% CI (0.79, 1.13), Z=0.61, P=0.54). There was no heterogeneity in the literature (χ2=5.23, P=0.52, I2=0%), and there was no significant publication bias. Conclusion. There is no significant difference in OS and RFS between TIVA and IA patients during breast cancer resection. The prognostic effects of TIVA and IA were similar.