Abstract The poor prognosis of ovarian cancer is mainly due to metastasis, and the specific mechanism underlying ovarian cancer metastasis is not clear. Ascites-derived exosomes (ADEs) play an important role in the progression of ovarian cancer, but the mechanism is unknown. Here, we found that ADEs promoted ovarian cancer metastasis not only in vitro but also in vivo. This promotive function was based on epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ovarian cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis of RNA sequencing microarray data indicated that miR-6780b-5p may be the key microRNA (miRNA) in ADEs that facilitates cancer metastasis. Moreover, the expression of exosomal miR-6780b-5p correlated with tumor metastasis in ovarian cancer patients. miR-6780b-5p overexpression promoted and miR-6780b-5p downregulation suppressed EMT of ovarian cancer cells. These results suggest that ADEs transfer miR-6780b-5p to ovarian cancer cells, promoting EMT and finally facilitating ovarian cancer metastasis.