In sows, excess backfat during late gestation is associated with increased farrowing difficulties and influences the fetus, but the impact of backfat thickness on placental inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular development has not been defined. In this study, 120 sows were divided into six groups based on backfat thickness (≤16, 17−18, 19−20, 21−22, 23−24, and ≥25 mm) in late gestation. The placental lipids, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, inflammatory-related cytokine and angiogenesis were determined. The concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL−C), and free fatty acid (FFA) linearly increased (p < 0.05) associated with increased late gestation backfat. ROS and MDA increased and TAC decreased (p < 0.05) as the backfat thickness increased. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, TLR4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL)−1β, IL−6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)−1 increased with increased backfat in late gestation. There were no differences in IL−8 and IL−10 mRNA expression among sows with different backfat thickness. Placental vessel density initially increased and then decreased with increasing backfat thickness of sows. Similarly, the mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also increased and then decreased. Excessive backfat in late gestation was associated with greater oxidative stress, greater expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and decreased expression of placental angiogenic regulators.