Batteries (Sep 2021)

Battery Crush Test Procedures in Standards and Regulation: Need for Augmentation and Harmonisation

  • Bhavya Kotak,
  • Yash Kotak,
  • Katja Brade,
  • Tibor Kubjatko,
  • Hans-Georg Schweiger

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 7, no. 63
p. 63


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Battery safety is a prominent concern for the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs). The battery powering an EV contains highly energetic active materials and flammable organic electrolytes. Usually, an EV battery catches fire due to its thermal runaway, either immediately at the time of the accident or can take a while to gain enough heat to ignite the battery chemicals. There are numerous battery abuse testing standards and regulations available globally. Therefore, battery manufacturers are always in dilemma to choose the safest one. Henceforth, to find the optimal outcome of these two major issues, six standards (SAE J2464:2009, GB/T 31485-2015:2015, FreedomCAR:2006, ISO 12405-3:2014, IEC 62660-2:2010, and SAND2017-6295:2017) and two regulations (UN/ECE-R100.02:2013 and GTR 20:2018), that are followed by more than fifty countries in the world, are investigated in terms of their abuse battery testing conditions (crush test). This research proves that there is a need for (a) augmenting these standards and regulations as they do not consider real-life vehicle crash scenarios, and (b) one harmonised framework should be developed, which can be adopted worldwide. These outcomes will solve the battery manufacturers dilemma and will also increase the safety of EV consumers.