Journal of Medical Internet Research (Apr 2021)

Machine Learning–Driven Models to Predict Prognostic Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure Using Electronic Health Records: Retrospective Study

  • Lv, Haichen,
  • Yang, Xiaolei,
  • Wang, Bingyi,
  • Wang, Shaobo,
  • Du, Xiaoyan,
  • Tan, Qian,
  • Hao, Zhujing,
  • Liu, Ying,
  • Yan, Jun,
  • Xia, Yunlong

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 23, no. 4
p. e24996


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BackgroundWith the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases increasing worldwide, early prediction and accurate assessment of heart failure (HF) risk are crucial to meet the clinical demand. ObjectiveOur study objective was to develop machine learning (ML) models based on real-world electronic health records to predict 1-year in-hospital mortality, use of positive inotropic agents, and 1-year all-cause readmission rate. MethodsFor this single-center study, we recruited patients with newly diagnosed HF hospitalized between December 2010 and August 2018 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University (Liaoning Province, China). The models were constructed for a population set (90:10 split of data set into training and test sets) using 79 variables during the first hospitalization. Logistic regression, support vector machine, artificial neural network, random forest, and extreme gradient boosting models were investigated for outcome predictions. ResultsOf the 13,602 patients with HF enrolled in the study, 537 (3.95%) died within 1 year and 2779 patients (20.43%) had a history of use of positive inotropic agents. ML algorithms improved the performance of predictive models for 1-year in-hospital mortality (areas under the curve [AUCs] 0.92-1.00), use of positive inotropic medication (AUCs 0.85-0.96), and 1-year readmission rates (AUCs 0.63-0.96). A decision tree of mortality risk was created and stratified by single variables at levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (<0.068 μg/L), followed by percentage of lymphocytes (<14.688%) and neutrophil count (4.870×109/L). ConclusionsML techniques based on a large scale of clinical variables can improve outcome predictions for patients with HF. The mortality decision tree may contribute to guiding better clinical risk assessment and decision making.