Materials (Feb 2020)

Viability and Stimulation of Human Stem Cells from the Apical Papilla (hSCAPs) Induced by Silicate-Based Materials for Their Potential Use in Regenerative Endodontics: A Systematic Review

  • José Luis Sanz,
  • Leopoldo Forner,
  • Alicia Almudéver,
  • Julia Guerrero-Gironés,
  • Carmen Llena

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 13, no. 4
p. 974


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Blood clot formation in the apical third of the root canal system has been shown to promote further root development and reinforcement of dentinal walls by the deposition of mineralized tissue, resulting in an advancement from traditional apexification procedures to a regenerative endodontic treatment (RET) for non-vital immature permanent teeth. Silicate-based hydraulic biomaterials, categorized as bioactive endodontic cements, emerged as bright candidates for their use in RET as coronal barriers, sealing the previously induced blood clot scaffold. Human stem cells from the apical papilla (hSCAPs) surviving the infection may induce or at least be partially responsible for the regeneration or repair shown in RET. The aim of this study is to present a qualitative synthesis of available literature consisting of in vitro assays which analyzed the viability and stimulation of hSCAPs induced by silicate-based hydraulic biomaterials. A systematic electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane and SciELO databases, followed by a study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment following the PRISMA protocol. In vitro studies assessing the viability, proliferation, and/or differentiation of hSCAPs as well as their mineralization potential and/or osteogenic, odontogenic, cementogenic and/or angiogenic marker expression in contact with commercially available silicate-based materials were included in the present review. The search identified 73 preliminary references, of which 10 resulted to be eligible for qualitative synthesis. The modal materials studied were ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. Both bioceramic materials showed significant positive results when compared to a control for hSCAP cell viability, migration, and proliferation assays; a significant up-regulation of hSCAP odontogenic/osteogenic marker (ALP, DSPP, BSP, Runx2, OCN, OSX), angiogenic growth factor (VEGFA, FIGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) expression; and a significant increase in hSCAP mineralized nodule formation assessed by Alizarin Red staining. Commercially available silicate-based materials considered in the present review can potentially induce mineralization and odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation of hSCAPs, thus prompting their use in regenerative endodontic procedures.