Frontiers in Microbiology (Jan 2019)

HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology, Transmission Clusters and Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations in Central Brazil

  • Tayana Serpa Ortiz Tanaka,
  • Thaysse Ferreira Leite,
  • Solange Zacalusni Freitas,
  • Gabriela Alves Cesar,
  • Grazielli Rocha de Rezende,
  • Andrea De Siqueira Campos Lindenberg,
  • Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães,
  • Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro,
  • Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro,
  • Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 10


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We aimed to characterize HIV-1 molecular epidemiology and transmission clusters among heterosexual (HET) and men who have sex with men (MSM) individuals, as well as transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) in Central-Western Brazil. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 190 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1 infected individuals. Proviral DNA was extracted, and nested PCR amplified partial polymerase gene (PR/RT). After sequencing, subtypes were assigned, and the sequences were analyzed for the occurrence of possible transmission networks. Calibrated Population Resistance (CPR) tool from Stanford HIV Database was used to investigate the presence of TDRM. Among 150 individuals whose samples were successfully sequenced, the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype was B, followed by recombinant forms. The occurrence of twenty transmission clusters composed by at least two sequences was verified, suggesting the existence of transmission clusters among individuals from the same or distinct sexual orientations. Intermediate level of TDRM (12%) was found in the study population, and almost half of the subjects with TDRM had more than one resistance mutation. No correlations between sexual orientation and the presence of TDRM, HIV-1 subtypes/recombinants forms were verified. Taken together, the necessity of the continuous monitoring of the TDRM to verify the importance of pre-genotyping and to delineate future strategies in primary antiretroviral therapy. Likewise, the knowledge of the HIV-1 transmission networks in Brazil would allow the implementation of effective HIV-1 prevention strategies in local settings.