Virtual and Physical Prototyping (Dec 2023)

X-photon laser direct write 3D nanolithography

  • Edvinas Skliutas,
  • Danielius Samsonas,
  • Arūnas Čiburys,
  • Lukas Kontenis,
  • Darius Gailevičius,
  • Jonas Berzinš,
  • Donatas Narbutis,
  • Vytautas Jukna,
  • Mikas Vengris,
  • Saulius Juodkazis,
  • Mangirdas Malinauskas

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 18, no. 1


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Multiphoton photopolymerisation (MPP), also known as 3D nanoprinting, was studied using a wavelength-tunable femtosecond laser. The possibility of using any colour of the spectrum from 500 to 1200 nm with a fixed pulse width of 100 fs revealed an interplay of photophysical mechanisms more delicate than just two-photon photopolymerisation. An effective order of absorption, i.e. the X-photon absorption, as well as optimal exposure conditions were assessed for photosensitised and pure SZ2080$^{{\rm TM}}$ pre-polymer. The tunability of wavelength greatly influenced the dynamic fabrication window (DFW), optimised conditions resulting in a 10-fold increase. Furthermore, a non-trivial energy deposition by X-photon absorption was noted with an onset of a strong lateral size increase at longer wavelengths and can be understood as due to reaching epsilon-near-zero conditions. Such a control over the voxel aspect ratio and, consequently, the photopolymerised volume, may boost 3D nanoprinting efficiency. Overall, the results reveal wavelength being an important degree of freedom to tailor the MPP process and, if optimised, benefiting broad applications in areas of micro-optics, nanophotonic devices, metamaterials and tissue engineering.