Advanced Materials Interfaces (Jan 2023)

Indium Selenide/Indium Tin Oxide Hybrid Films for Solution‐Processed Photoelectrochemical‐Type Photodetectors in Aqueous Media

  • Gabriele Bianca,
  • Marilena Isabella Zappia,
  • Sebastiano Bellani,
  • Michele Ghini,
  • Nicola Curreli,
  • Joka Buha,
  • Valerio Galli,
  • Mirko Prato,
  • Aljoscha Soll,
  • Zdeněk Sofer,
  • Guglielmo Lanzani,
  • Ilka Kriegel,
  • Francesco Bonaccorso

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 10, no. 1
pp. n/a – n/a


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Abstract 2D metal monochalcogenides have recently attracted interest for photoelectrochemical (PEC) applications in aqueous electrolytes. Their optical bandgap in the visible and near‐infrared spectral region is adequate for energy conversion and photodetection/sensing. Their large surface‐to‐volume ratio guarantees that the charge carriers are photogenerated at the material/electrolyte interface, where redox reactions occur, minimizing recombination processes. However, solution‐processed photoelectrodes based on these materials exhibit energy conversion efficiencies that are far from the current state of the art expressed by established technologies. This work reports a systematic morphological, spectroscopic, and PEC characterization of solution‐processed films of photoactive InSe flakes for PEC‐type photodetectors. By optimizing the thickness and hybridizing InSe flakes with electrically conductive Sn:In2O3 (ITO) nanocrystals, photoanodes with a significant photoanodic response in both acidic and alkaline media are designed, reaching responsivity up to 60.0 mA W−1 (external quantum efficiency = 16.4%) at +0.4 V versus RHE under visible illumination. In addition, a strategy based on the use of sacrificial agents (i.e., 2‐propanol and Na2SO3) is proposed to improve the stability of the InSe and ITO/InSe photodetectors. Our data confirm the potential of 2D InSe for PEC energy conversion and sensing applications, remarking the challenges related to InSe stability during anodic operation.