Effects of short-term swimming exercise on bone mineral density, geometry, and microstructural properties in sham and ovariectomized rats

Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2014;12(2):80-87 DOI 10.1016/j.jesf.2014.09.001

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness

ISSN: 1728-869X (Print)

Publisher: Elsevier

Society/Institution: The Society of Chinese Scholars on Exercise Physiology and Fitness (SCSEPF), the Physical Fitness Association of Hong Kong, China (HKPFA), and the Hong Kong Association of Sports Medicine and Sports Science (HKASMSS)

LCC Subject Category: Geography. Anthropology. Recreation: Recreation. Leisure: Sports

Country of publisher: Hong Kong

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, XML

 

AUTHORS

Foong Kiew Ooi (Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia)
Wan Mohd Norsyam (Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia)
Asok Kumar Ghosh (Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia)
Siti Amrah Sulaiman (Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia)
Chee Keong Chen (Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia)
Leung-kim Hung (Musculoskeletal Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Double blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 32 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

Little information exists about the effects of swimming exercise on bone health in ovariectomized animals with estrogen deficiency, which resembles the postmenopausal state and age-related bone loss in humans. This study investigated the effects of swimming exercise on tibia and femur bone mineral density (BMD), geometry, and microstructure in sham and ovariectomized rats. Forty 3-month-old female rats were divided into four groups: sham operated-sedentary control (Sham-control), sham operated with swimming exercise group (Sham-Swim), ovariectomy-sedentary control (OVx-control), and ovariectomy and swimming exercise (OVx-Swim) groups. Swimming sessions were performed by the rats 90 minutes/day for 5 days/week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of the study, tibial and femoral proximal volumetric total BMD, midshaft cortical volumetric BMD, cross-sectional area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia (MOI), and bone microstructural properties were measured for comparison. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Sham-Swim group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA) greater values in bone geometry parameters, that is, tibial midshaft cortical area and MOI compared to the Sham-control group. However, no significant differences were observed in these parameters between the Ovx-Swim and Ovx-control groups. There were no significant differences in femoral BMD between the Sham-Swim and Sham-control groups. Nevertheless, the Ovx-Swim group elicited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA) higher femoral proximal total BMD and improved bone microstructure compared to the Ovx-Sham group. In conclusion, the positive effects of swimming on bone properties in the ovariectomized rats in the present study may suggest that swimming as a non- or low-weight-bearing exercise may be beneficial for enhancing bone health in the postmenopausal population.