Materials Today Bio (Dec 2022)

Lignocellulose dissociation with biological pretreatment towards the biochemical platform: A review

  • Zengyou Wu,
  • Kun Peng,
  • Yin Zhang,
  • Mei Wang,
  • Cheng Yong,
  • Ling Chen,
  • Ping Qu,
  • Hongying Huang,
  • Enhui Sun,
  • Mingzhu Pan

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 16
p. 100445


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Lignocellulose utilization has been gaining great attention worldwide due to its abundance, accessibility, renewability and recyclability. Destruction and dissociation of the cross-linked, hierarchical structure within cellulose hemicellulose and lignin is the key procedure during chemical utilization of lignocellulose. Of the pretreatments, biological treatment, which can effectively target the complex structures, is attractive due to its mild reaction conditions and environmentally friendly characteristics. Herein, we report a comprehensive review of the current biological pretreatments for lignocellulose dissociation and their corresponding degradation mechanisms. Firstly, we analyze the layered, hierarchical structure of cell wall, and the cross-linked network between cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, then highlight that the cracking of β-aryl ether is considered the key to lignin degradation because of its dominant position. Secondly, we explore the effect of biological pretreatments, such as fungi, bacteria, microbial consortium, and enzymes, on substrate structure and degradation efficiency. Additionally, combining biological pretreatment with other methods (chemical methods and catalytic materials) may reduce the time necessary for the whole process, which also help to strengthen the lignocellulose dissociation efficiency. Thirdly, we summarize the related applications of lignocellulose, such as fuel production, chemicals platform, and bio-pulping, which could effectively alleviate the energy pressure through bioconversion into high value-added products. Based on reviewing of current progress of lignocellulose pretreatment, the challenges and future prospects are emphasized. Genetic engineering and other technologies to modify strains or enzymes for improved biotransformation efficiency will be the focus of future research.