Nature Environment and Pollution Technology (Mar 2023)

Evapotranspiration Over the Indian Region: Implications of Climate Change and Land Use/Land Cover Change

  • Garima Singh and Sudhir Kumar Singh

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 22, no. 1
pp. 211 – 219


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Evapotranspiration (ET) plays a significant role in climatic studies, directly influencing the hydrological cycle, energy balance equation, and surface vegetation. ET comprises three components: bare soil or ground evaporation, evaporation, and transpiration, in which vegetation removes water influenced by food grain production. In turn, soil moisture availability depends on precipitation characteristics over land, surface net radiation, and wind speed are the major climatic factors that together determine the magnitude of ET. This controls moisture availability in the lower troposphere, hence atmospheric stability, chances of cloud formation, and precipitation. Though the study of evapotranspiration is important for determining agricultural water consumption and analyzing drought situations, there is a lot of uncertainty in its accurate estimation. Land use/Land cover changes (LULCC) occurring throughout the Indian subcontinent have been found to affect the characteristics of low to moderate rainfall events and surface temperature extremes (Halder et al. 2016). A global warming scenario will change the hydrological cycle, and the impact of anthropogenic factors has also necessitated the need to understand the mechanisms that control changes in ET over India. In this study, we want to analyze the relationship between transpiration and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and investigate the relationship between canopy interception with respect to NDVI all over the Indian region. Attempts have been made to assess the impact of changes in climate and LULC on ET and its three components over the Indian region from 1981 till the present time. The monsoon season increases precipitation, and soil evaporation is found to increase at first, along with an increase in NDVI followed by canopy evaporation and transpiration. It is noted that changes in precipitation and LULCC across the Indian subcontinent have contributed significantly to changes in ET in different seasons. As variability in surface net radiation also plays an important role in controlling changes in total ET, it is being investigated.