Thrombosis Journal (Dec 2021)

Differences between surviving and non-surviving venous thromboembolism COVID-19 patients: a systematic review

  • Mauricio Castillo-Perez,
  • Carlos Jerjes-Sanchez,
  • Alejandra Castro-Varela,
  • Jose Gildardo Paredes-Vazquez,
  • Eduardo Vazquez-Garza,
  • Ray Erick Ramos-Cazares,
  • Jose Alfredo Salinas-Casanova,
  • Abigail Montserrat Molina-Rodriguez,
  • Arturo Adrián Martinez-Ibarra,
  • Mario Alejandro Fabiani,
  • Yoezer Z Flores-Sayavedra,
  • Jaime Alberto Guajardo-Lozano,
  • Hector Lopez-de la Garza,
  • Hector Betancourt-del Campo,
  • Daniela Martinez-Magallanes,
  • Jathniel Panneflek

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 19, no. 1
pp. 1 – 11


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Abstract Background To our knowledge, the treatment, outcome, clinical presentation, risk stratification of patients with venous thromboembolism and COVID-19 have not been well characterized. Methods We searched for systematic reviews, cohorts, case series, case reports, editor letters, and venous thromboembolism COVID-19 patients’ abstracts following PRISMA and PROSPERO statements. We analyzed therapeutic approaches and clinical outcomes of venous thromboembolism COVID-19 patients. Inclusion: COVID-19 patients with venous thromboembolism confirmed by an imaging method (venous doppler ultrasound, ventilation-perfusion lung scan, computed tomography pulmonary angiogram, pulmonary angiography). We assessed and reported the original Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index for each pulmonary embolism patient. In addition, we defined major bleedings according to the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Results We performed a systematic review from August 9 to August 30, 2020. We collected 1,535 papers from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley, and Opengrey. We extracted data from 89 studies that describe 143 patients. Unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin was used as parenteral anticoagulation in 85/143 (59%) cases. The Food and Drug Administration-approved alteplase regimen guided the advanced treatment in 39/143 (27%) patients. The mortality was high (21.6%, CI 95% 15.2-29.3). The incidence of major bleeding complications was 1 (0.9%) in the survival group and 1 (3.2%) in the death group. Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index was class I in 11.6% and II in 22.3% in survivors compared to 0% and 6.5% in non-survivors, respectively. Patients who experienced venous thromboembolism events at home were more likely to live than in-hospital events. Conclusions We determined a high mortality incidence of pulmonary embolism and a low rate of bleeding. Unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparin drove parenteral anticoagulation and alteplase the advanced treatment in both groups. The original Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index could be helpful in the risk stratification.