International Journal of Microbiology (Jan 2021)

Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of Apple Vinegar of Different Cultivars

  • Driss Ousaaid,
  • Hassan Laaroussi,
  • Meryem Bakour,
  • Hayat Ennaji,
  • Badiaa Lyoussi,
  • Ilham El Arabi

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 2021


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This study was designed to assess the antimicrobial potencies of apple vinegar against pathogenic microbes. The acidity and total phenolic content were carried out by titration with NaOH 0.1 N and the Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively, while the spread plate method, agar well diffusion, and MIC assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activities of different vinegar samples. Acidity and phenolic content were dependent on the variety, where the highest values were observed in S2 with 4.02 ± 0.04% and 1.98 ± 0.05 mg GAE/mL for acidity and total phenolic content, respectively. The spread plate method revealed that samples S1 and S2 obtained from the Red delicious variety and Golden delicious variety, respectively, inhibit the growth of all tested strains, while S3 obtained from different varieties and S4 obtained from the Gala royal variety inhibit only two microbes (Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae). Sample S1 presented moderate antimicrobial effect against all examined strains with a diameter of inhibition ranging from 11 ± 0.7 to 19 ± 0.5 mm and with MIC values ranging between 1/2 and 1/100. The findings of the current study confirm the usefulness of apple vinegar as a natural sanitizer that inhibits the growth of pathogenic microbes.