The article deals with the development of psychological knowledge in higher pedagogical education in Russia at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries. An explanation of the change in psychological knowledge is given, in connection with the historical fact of the definition of psychology as an independent science and its separation from the boundaries of philosophy during this period of time. Teaching institutions of Russia of the end of the XIX century are described, the content of education in them is explained, as well as the essence of higher pedagogical education of that time. The article also describes the higher pedagogical education of the beginning of the 20th century, in particular, the post-revolutionary period. The forms, essence and content of this formation are shown, as well as the level of contradictions that have arisen in the formation of that time.