Nature Environment and Pollution Technology (Mar 2023)
Spatial and Temporal Changes and Driving Factors of Desertification Around Qinghai Lake, China
The area around Qinghai Lake is one of the most serious desertification areas on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In this paper, combined with field investigation and indoor analysis, the classification and grading system of desertification around Qinghai Lake was established. On this basis, through remote sensing data processing and parameter inversion, the desertification monitoring index model was established. Based on the analysis of Landsat-5/TM remote sensing data from 1990 to 2020, the dynamic change characteristics of desertification land around Qinghai Lake in recent 30 years were obtained. The results show that the desertification area around Qinghai Lake was 1,359.62 km2, of which the light desertification land was the main one. The desertification spread in a belt around Qinghai Lake, concentrated in Ketu sandy area in the east, Ganzi River sandy area in the northeast, Bird Island sandy area in the northwest, and Langmashe sandy area in the southeast. From 1990 to 2000, the annual expansion rate of desertification around Qinghai Lake was 2.68%, the desertification spread rapidly, and light desertification land was the main part of desertification expansion. From 2000 to 2010, the annual expansion rate of desertification was only 0.83%, but severe desertification land and moderate desertification land developed more rapidly than in the previous period. From 2010 to 2020, the annual expansion rate of desertification was 2.66%, and the desertification was spreading rapidly, mainly with moderate desertification land and light desertification land. In the process of desertification land transfer around Qinghai Lake, the transfer of desertification land and non-desertification land was the main, accompanied by the mutual transformation of different levels of desertification land. The process of desertification around Qinghai Lake was essentially the result of natural and human factors. The special geographical location, climate changes, rodent damage, and human factors around Qinghai Lake were the main causes of desertification.