This article analyses the evolution of bilateral trade relations, registered over the last 20 years, between the Republic of Moldova and the Russian Federation, revealing the existing impediments to their optimal development. Trade relations between these two countries entered the uncertainty zone in the last decade. They are significantly affected by the political tensions between the Republic of Moldova and the Russian Federation, which generated the application by the Russian Federation of embargoes, prohibitions and import taxes on Moldovan products. The high share of Moldovan exports oriented to a single market destination - the Russian Federation, revealed the Moldova's commercial dependence on it until 2014, when exports have been reoriented to the EU following the signing of the Association Agreement. However, taking into account the dependence of the Moldovan economy on the Russian Federation's mineral resources and the Russian market size, which cannot be neglected, Moldova must strive to normalize economic relations with this country.