The purpose of the paper is to identify and analyze some key factors that in recent years have stimulated processes and trends, leading to further fragmentation of the Arab world. The main attention is focused on the substantiation of the thesis that, despite the desire of the Arab peoples to unite on the path to the formation of a single state entity, due to a complex of factors, almost all of their attempts have failed. It is shown that the causes of the contradictions and conflicts underlying the fragmentation, along with the socio-economic and political ones, are also rooted in the confessional sphere. This thesis is based primarily on the examples of the conflict between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, as well as the wider Sunni-Shiite conflict, which, starting with the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in Iran has become increasingly acute over the past decade. It is concluded that the trends towards fragmentation, which have intensified as a result of the so-called “Arab Spring”, in modern conditions prevail over the unifying aspirations of the Arab peoples.