Pentatoma rufipes (Linnaeus, 1758) is an important agroforestry pest widely distributed in the Palaearctic region. In this study, we sequence and annotate the complete mitochondrial genome of P. rufipes and reconstruct the phylogenetic trees for Pentatomoidea using existing data for eight families published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The mitogenome of P. rufipes is 15,887-bp-long, comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region, with an A+T content of 77.7%. The genome structure, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage of the mitogenome of P. rufipes were consistent with those of typical Hemiptera insects. Among the protein-coding genes of Pentatomoidea, the evolutionary rate of ATP8 was the fastest, and COX1 was found to be the most conservative gene in the superfamily. Substitution saturation assessment indicated that neither transition nor transversion substitutions were saturated in the analyzed datasets. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian inference method showed that P. rufipes belonged to Pentatomidae. The node support values based on the dataset concatenated from protein-coding and RNA genes were the highest. Our results enrich the mitochondrial genome database of Pentatomoidea and provide a reference for further studies of phylogenetic systematics.