Grapevine yellows (GY) are serious phytoplasma-caused diseases affecting viticultural areas worldwide. At present, two principal agents of GY are known to infest grapevines in Germany: Bois noir (BN) and Palatinate grapevine yellows (PGY). Disease management is mostly based on prophylactic measures as there are no curative in-field treatments available. In this context, sensor-based disease detection could be a useful tool for winegrowers. Therefore, hyperspectral imaging (400–2500 nm) was applied to identify phytoplasma-infected greenhouse plants and shoots collected in the field. Disease detection models (Radial-Basis Function Network) have successfully been developed for greenhouse plants of two white grapevine varieties infected with BN and PGY. Differentiation of symptomatic and healthy plants was possible reaching satisfying classification accuracies of up to 96%. However, identification of BN-infected but symptomless vines was difficult and needs further investigation. Regarding shoots collected in the field from different red and white varieties, correct classifications of up to 100% could be reached using a Multi-Layer Perceptron Network for analysis. Thus, hyperspectral imaging seems to be a promising approach for the detection of different GY. Moreover, the 10 most important wavelengths were identified for each disease detection approach, many of which could be found between 400 and 700 nm and in the short-wave infrared region (1585, 2135, and 2300 nm). These wavelengths could be used further to develop multispectral systems.