Issues raised by the reference doses for perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid

Environment International. 2017;105:86-94

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Environment International

ISSN: 0160-4120 (Print)

Publisher: Elsevier

LCC Subject Category: Geography. Anthropology. Recreation: Environmental sciences

Country of publisher: United Kingdom

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML

 

AUTHORS

Zhaomin Dong (Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, The Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia)
Md Mezbaul Bahar (Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, The Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia)
Joytishna Jit (Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Future Industries Institute (FII), University of South Australia, University Parade, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia)
Bruce Kennedy (Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia)
Brian Priestly (Australian Centre for Human Health Risk Assessment, School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, VIC 3004, Australia)
Jack Ng (The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology-Entox, Brisbane, Australia)
Dane Lamb (Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, The Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia)
Yanju Liu (Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, The Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia)
Luchun Duan (Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, The Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia)
Ravi Naidu (Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, The Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia; Corresponding author at: ATC Building, Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 12 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

On 25th May 2016, the U.S. EPA released reference doses (RfDs) for Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) of 20ng/kg/day, which were much more conservative than previous values. These RfDs rely on the choices of animal point of departure (PoD) and the toxicokinetics (TK) model. At this stage, considering that the human evidence is not strong enough for RfD determination, using animal data may be appropriate but with more uncertainties. In this article, the uncertainties concerning RfDs from the choices of PoD and TK models are addressed. Firstly, the candidate PoDs should include more critical endpoints (such as immunotoxicity), which may lead to lower RfDs. Secondly, the reliability of the adopted three-compartment TK model is compromised: the parameters are not non-biologically plausible; and this TK model was applied to simulate gestation and lactation exposures, while the two exposure scenarios were not actually included in the model structure. Keywords: PFOS, PFOA, Reference dose, Toxicity, Uncertainties