Viruses (Oct 2021)

Role of Serum Vitamin D, Interleukin 13, and microRNA-135a in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Treatment Failure in Egyptian HCV-Infected Patients Receiving Direct Antiviral Agents

  • Mohamed E. Ali,
  • Hamada M. Halby,
  • Mamdouh Yones Ali,
  • Elham Ahmed Hassan,
  • Mohamed A. El-Mokhtar,
  • Ibrahim M. Sayed,
  • Marwa M. Thabet,
  • Magdy Fouad,
  • Ahmed M. El-Ashmawy,
  • Zainab Gaber Mahran

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 13, no. 2008
p. 2008


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Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are used for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. However, treatment failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development following treatment was reported. In this study, we assessed the role of serum vitamin D, interleukin 13 (IL-13), and microRNA-135a in the prediction of treatment failure with DAA and HCC development among Egyptian HCV-infected patients. A total of 950 patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease underwent DAA treatment. Before DAAs, serum vitamin D and IL-13 were determined by ELISA, and gene expression of miRNA-135a was assessed in serum by real-time PCR. The predictive abilities of these markers were determined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Sustained virological response (SVR) was achieved in 92.6% of HCV-infected patients (responders). High viral load, IL-13, miRNA-135a, and low vitamin D levels were associated with treatment failure and HCC development. HCC development was recorded in non-responders, but not in the responders (35.7% vs. 0% p < 0.001). In conclusion: serum IL-13, Vitamin D, and miRNA-135a could be potential biomarkers in monitoring DAA treatment and HCC prediction. DAAs-induced SVR may decrease the incidence of HCC.