This article has as central theme, the firearms market in Brazil, focusing on the small arms and light weapons. The objective is to present a genesis of the sector, highlighting some turning points and identifying variables that help in the construction and operation of the market. It is inspired by the argument of economic sociology, which considers that markets are social constructions. In methodological terms, we conducted historical research to identify the genesis of the sector and documentary research to map the legislation, the clashes between defenders and critics of the firearms market and their arguments, as well as to access official market databases. The results indicate that, in its genesis, there was a strong symbiosis between private companies and public investments in the sector; With regard to agents, on the side of market defenders, we have a confluence of private companies and public investments in the sector, as well as strong political power, expressed in the slow progress of the 1999 bill, which sought to regulate the market. On the critics' side, the group gains visibility in Brazil after Lula's victory in the 2002 elections, expressing a debate that relates gun possession and murder and speeding up the approval of the 2003 Disarmament Statute.