Foundation: Research that attempts to relate family functioning and the effort perceived by the primary caregiver of children with neurological diseases, documents divergent and insufficient results. Objective: to identify the relationship between family functioning and the effort perceived by the primary caregiver of children with neurological diseases. Methods: case series study, conducted at the Neuropsychology Service, of the International Center for Neurological Restoration, in the second half of 2018. The participants were 12 children caregivers between one and six years old. Structured interview, caregiver effort index, family functioning scale / FF-SIL, inventory of family risk characteristics and documentary analysis were applied. Descriptive statistics, comparison of means and Spearman correlation were used. Results: 92% of caregivers had not received information on how to take care of themselves, or how to care for their child. The caregiver effort index showed equal proportions for the high and low levels (50% respectively). The relationship between caregivers´ age, children´s development age and family functioning was observed (r = 0.71, r = 0.67); as well as between the caregiver's effort index and the family risk inventory (r = 0.72). Conclusion: The primary caregivers studied lack self-care information and care of their child; a high criticality and an effort index of the heterogeneous caregiver, which is related to family risks. The age of caregivers and the age of children´s development influence family functioning.