Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (Oct 2017)

Spontaneous peritonitis in critically ill cirrhotic patients: a diagnostic algorithm for clinicians and future perspectives

  • Fiore M,
  • Maraolo AE,
  • Leone S,
  • Gentile I,
  • Cuomo A,
  • Schiavone V,
  • Bimonte S,
  • Pace MC,
  • Cascella M

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 13
pp. 1409 – 1414


Read online

Marco Fiore,1 Alberto Enrico Maraolo,2 Sebastiano Leone,3 Ivan Gentile,2 Arturo Cuomo,4 Vincenzo Schiavone,5 Sabrina Bimonte,4 Maria Caterina Pace,1 Marco Cascella4 1Department of Anaesthesiological, Surgical and Emergency Sciences, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, “San Giuseppe Moscati” Hospital, Avellino, Italy; 4Division of Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Istituto Nazionale Tumori – IRCCS – Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples, Italy; 5Division of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Hospital “Pineta Grande”, Castel Volturno, Italy Abstract: Spontaneous peritonitis (SP) is the most common infection among decompensated end-stage liver disease patients. SP is the infection of ascitic fluid (neutrophil ascitic count ≥250/mL) without an alternative focus of abdominal infection. According to the causative agent, clinicians can make the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or spontaneous fungal peritonitis. The mortality rate is very high, ranging from one-fifth of the patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis to four-fifths of the patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis. An immediate and accurate diagnosis can improve the outcome in end-stage liver disease patients. The aim of this work is to provide physicians with a practical diagnostic guidance for SP diagnosis according to current evidence, in order to improve the management of cirrhotic patients with infected ascitic fluid. Keywords: cirrhosis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, spontaneous fungal peritonitis, bacteriascites, fungal ascites