Nature and Science of Sleep (Oct 2021)

The Associations of Trajectory of Sleep Duration and Inflammation with Hypertension: A Longitudinal Study in China

  • Huang L,
  • Long Z,
  • Lyu J,
  • Chen Y,
  • Li R,
  • Wang Y,
  • Li S

Journal volume & issue
Vol. Volume 13
pp. 1797 – 1806


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Lili Huang,1,* Zichong Long,1,* Jiajun Lyu,1 Yiting Chen,1 Rong Li,1 Yanlin Wang,2 Shenghui Li1,3 1School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Prenatal Diagnosis Department, International Peace Maternity & Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3MOE - Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children’s Environmental Health, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workCorrespondence: Shenghui LiSchool of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 227 South Chongqing Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86-21-63846590Email [email protected]; [email protected]: Existing evidence suggested that sleep duration may be involved in hypertension; however, the conclusions were still controversial. This study aimed to examine the association of longitudinal trajectory of sleep duration with hypertension and to explore the role of the inflammation in such associations.Methods: A total of 3178 subjects over 30 years of age without hypertension were enrolled in 2004, and they were followed until 2009. Self-reported sleep duration was recorded, and inflammation was measured by highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Log-binomial regression models were applied to examine the association of sleep duration trajectory and inflammation with the risk of hypertension. The mediating effect of elevated hs-CRP was examined by the bootstrap and the process software.Results: The prevalence of persistent short (≤ 7 hours/day), normal (8– 9 hours/day), and long (> 9 hours/day) sleep duration over 5 years were 9.1%, 37.7%, and 2.3%, respectively. The incidence of hypertension was 26.6% during the follow-up period. Compared with those who persistently slept 8– 9 hours/day from baseline to follow-up, those who persistently slept ≤ 7 hours/day, persistently slept ≥ 10 hours/day, and those whose sleep duration changed have higher risks of hypertension by 1.375-fold (95% CI: 1.121, 1.686), 1.557-fold (95% CI: 1.171, 2.069) and 1.299-fold (95% CI: 1.135, 1.487), respectively. In addition, persistently slept ≤ 7 hours/day was found to be associated with higher risk of inflammation (RR: 1.285, 95% CI: 1.008, 1.638). The mediation analysis did not find significant mediating effect of elevated CRP on the association between sleep duration trajectory and hypertension.Conclusion: Experiencing both a short or long sleep duration, especially for a long time, could lead to higher risk of hypertension. Persistent exposure to short sleep duration was also associated with inflammation. However, the higher risk of hypertension caused by persistent short sleep duration does not seem to be directly mediated through inflammation.Keywords: sleep duration, trajectory, inflammation, hypertension, longitudinal study