Feeding frequency, among various factors, greatly influences the production costs of aquaculture. In the present investigation, the effects of feeding schedule on the growth and production of tilapia and common carp were evaluated, along with rice yield, in an integrated rice-fish culture system. The experiment comprised 11 treatments, each with three replications, and a control treatment with no fish (T0). The fish in treatments T1–T5 were fed with rice bran once per week at 09:00 for T1, two days per week at 12:00 for T2, three days per week at 15:00 for T3, four days per week at 18:00 for T4, and five days per week at 09:00 and 18:00 for T5. The fish in treatments T6–T10 were fed an artificial floating feed with the same scheduled feeding frequency as T1–T5. The highest specific growth rate (SGR) in common carp (2.4%) and tilapia (4.3%) was found in T10. Similarly, the highest weight gains of tilapia (322.7 g) and common carp (180.9 g) were observed in T10 after 75 days of culture. In terms of rice, however, the highest recorded grain, straw, and biological yields of 5.6, 6.8, and 12.3 t ha−1, respectively, were observed for control T0. Overall, the highest net return (USD 30,051 ha−1) was found in T10. There was a 1504% greater net return and 98% higher benefit–cost ratio (BCR) in T10 compared to the control (T0). Five days of feeding per week at 09:00 and 18:00 was found to be the feeding schedule that resulted in the highest economic net return of those tested.