Bioremediation approaches for organic pollutants: A critical perspective

Environment International. 2011;37(8):1362-1375

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: Environment International

ISSN: 0160-4120 (Print)

Publisher: Elsevier

LCC Subject Category: Geography. Anthropology. Recreation: Environmental sciences

Country of publisher: United Kingdom

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML

 

AUTHORS

Mallavarapu Megharaj (Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, SA5095, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment, PO Box 486 Salisbury South, SA5106, Australia)
Balasubramanian Ramakrishnan (Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, SA5095, Australia; Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment, PO Box 486 Salisbury South, SA5106, Australia)
Kadiyala Venkateswarlu (Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, SA5095, Australia; Department of Microbiology, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515055, India; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment, PO Box 486 Salisbury South, SA5106, Australia; Corresponding author at: Department of Microbiology, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515055, India. Tel.: +91 8554 255760; fax: +91 8554 255805.)
Nambrattil Sethunathan (Flat No. 103, Ushodaya Apartments, Sri Venkateswara Officers Colony, Ramakrishnapuram, Secunderabad 500056, India)
Ravi Naidu (Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, SA5095, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environment, PO Box 486 Salisbury South, SA5106, Australia)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 12 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

Due to human activities to a greater extent and natural processes to some extent, a large number of organic chemical substances such as petroleum hydrocarbons, halogenated and nitroaromatic compounds, phthalate esters, solvents and pesticides pollute the soil and aquatic environments. Remediation of these polluted sites following the conventional engineering approaches based on physicochemical methods is both technically and economically challenging. Bioremediation that involves the capabilities of microorganisms in the removal of pollutants is the most promising, relatively efficient and cost-effective technology. However, the current bioremediation approaches suffer from a number of limitations which include the poor capabilities of microbial communities in the field, lesser bioavailability of contaminants on spatial and temporal scales, and absence of bench-mark values for efficacy testing of bioremediation for their widespread application in the field. The restoration of all natural functions of some polluted soils remains impractical and, hence, the application of the principle of function-directed remediation may be sufficient to minimize the risks of persistence and spreading of pollutants. This review selectively examines and provides a critical view on the knowledge gaps and limitations in field application strategies, approaches such as composting, electrobioremediation and microbe-assisted phytoremediation, and the use of probes and assays for monitoring and testing the efficacy of bioremediation of polluted sites. Keywords: Bioremediation approaches, Organic pollutants, Electrobioremediation, GEMs, Rhizoremediation, Limitations