Dysregulation of miR-378 has been found in diverse types of tumors as well as in leukemia. The role of miR-378 in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains unclear. The aim of the study was to reveal the potential effects of miR-378 in the pathological process and progress in CML. Our results showed general level of miR-378 was significant higher in CML patients compared to controls. Overexpression of miR-378 dramatically promoted cell proliferation and drug-resistance. Additionally, apoptosis was inhibited in cells transfected with miR-378. More and bigger stem cell sphere formation was observed in miR-378 transfected cells. Furthermore, enhanced expression of miR-378 was associated with upregulation of stem-cell makers OCT4 and c-Myc. Further study validated that miR-378 inhibited the expression of FUS1. Our research demonstrated the oncogenic nature of miR-378 in CML, and might contribute to the progress of CML.