Авіаційно-космічна техніка та технологія (Nov 2023)
Technologies for implementing of artificial intelligence as a service based on hardware accelerators
The subject of study in this article is modern technologies, tools and methods of building AI systems as a service using FPGA as a platform. The goal is to analyze modern technologies and tools used to develop FPGA-based projects for systems that implement artificial intelligence as a service and to prepare a practical AI service prototype. Task: to analyze the evolution of changes in the products of leading manufacturers of programmable logic devices and experimental and practical examples of the implementation of the paradigm of continuous reprogramming of programmable logic; analyze the dynamics of changes in the development environment of programmable logic systems for AI; analyze the essential elements of building projects for AI systems using programmable logic. According to the tasks, the following results were obtained. The area of application of hardware implementation of artificial intelligence for on-board and embedded systems including airspace industry, smart cars and medical systems is analyzed. The process of programming FPGA accelerators for AI projects is analyzed. The analysis of the capabilities of FPGA with HBM for building projects that require enough of high speed memory is performed. Description languages, frameworks, the hierarchy of tools for building of hardware accelerators for AI projects are analyzed in detail. The stages of prototyping of AI projects using new FPGA development tools and basic DPU blocks are analyzed. The parameters of the DPU blocks were analyzed. Practical steps for building such systems are offered. The practical recommendations for optimizing the neural network for FPGA implementation are given. The stages of neural network optimization are provided. The proposed steps include pruning of branches with low priority and the use of fixed point computations with custom range based on the requirements of an exact neural network. Based on these solutions, a practical case of AI service was prepared, trained and tested. Conclusions. The main contribution of this study is that, based on the proposed ideas and solutions, the next steps to create heterogeneous systems based on the combination of three elements are clear: AI as a service, FPGA accelerators as a technology for improving performance, reliability and security, and cloud or Edge resources to create FPGA infrastructure and AI as service. The development of this methodological and technological basis is the direction of further R&D.