JMIR Research Protocols (2020-04-01)

Effectiveness of Gastric Bypass Versus Gastric Sleeve for Cardiovascular Disease: Protocol and Baseline Results for a Comparative Effectiveness Study

  • Coleman, Karen J,
  • Fischer, Heidi,
  • Arterburn, David E,
  • Barthold, Douglas,
  • Barton, Lee J,
  • Basu, Anirban,
  • Courcoulas, Anita,
  • Crawford, Cecelia L,
  • Fedorka, Peter,
  • Kim, Benjamin,
  • Mun, Edward,
  • Murali, Sameer,
  • Reynolds, Kristi,
  • Suh, Kangho,
  • Wei, Rong,
  • Yoon, Tae K,
  • Zane, Robert

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 9, no. 4
p. e14936


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BackgroundWhen compared with conventional weight loss strategies, bariatric surgery results in substantially greater durable weight loss and rates of disease remission. ObjectiveThe ENGAGE CVD (Effectiveness of Gastric Bypass versus Gastric Sleeve for Cardiovascular Disease) cohort study aimed to provide population-based, comprehensive, rigorous evidence for clinical and policy decision making regarding the choice between gastric bypass and gastric sleeve for overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction, risk factor remission, and safety. MethodsThe cohort had 22,095 weight loss surgery patients from a large integrated health care system in Southern California assembled from 2009 to 2016 who were followed up through 2018. Bariatric surgery patients were followed up for the length of their membership in the health care system. Of the patients who had at least five years of follow-up (surgery between 2009 and 2013), 85.86% (13,774/16,043) could contribute to the outcome analyses for the ENGAGE CVD cohort. ResultsPatients in the ENGAGE CVD cohort were 44.6 (SD 11.4) years old, mostly women (17,718/22,095; 80.19%), with 18.94% (4185/22,095) non-Hispanic black and 41.80% (9235/22,095) Hispanic, and had an average BMI of 44.3 (SD 6.9) kg/m2 at the time of surgery. When compared with patients who did not contribute data to the 5-year outcome analysis for the ENGAGE CVD cohort (2269/16,043; 14.14%), patients who contributed data (13,774/16,043; 85.86%) were older (P=.002), more likely to be women (P=.02), more likely to be non-Hispanic white (P<.001), more likely to have had an emergency department visit in the year before surgery (P=.006), less likely to have a mental illness before surgery (P<.001), and more likely to have had a CVD event at any time before surgery (P<.001). ConclusionsThis study had one of the largest populations of gastric sleeve patients (n=13,459). The 5-year follow-up for those patients who had surgery between 2009 and 2013 was excellent for a retrospective cohort study at 85.86% (13,774/16,043). Unlike almost any study in the literature, the majority of the ENGAGE CVD cohort was racial and ethnic minority, providing a rare opportunity to study the effects of bariatric surgery for different racial and ethnic groups, some of whom have the highest rates of severe obesity in the United States. Finally, it also used state-of-the-art statistical and econometric comparative effectiveness methods to mimic the effect of random assignment and control for sources of confounding inherent in large observational studies. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID)RR1-10.2196/14936