Nature Environment and Pollution Technology (Mar 2023)

Evaluation of the Energy Factor and Equivalent CO2 Gas Emission by Utilization of Industrial By-products in Concrete for Environmental Protection

  • B. Saravanan, R. Divahar, S. P. Sangeetha and M. Bhuvaneshwari

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 22, no. 1
pp. 327 – 338


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Climate change and global warming are two of the world’s most pressing environmental issues. With CO2 being one of the most significant greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, and cement and concrete manufacturing accounting for roughly 10% of worldwide CO2 emissions, the construction sector must employ an environmentally sustainable substance as a substitute for cement. The CO2 emissions, energy factor, and strength qualities of concrete were investigated. Those negative reaction of conventional cementitious substances is reduced by the development of binary and ternary cementitious systems. In this study, two mineral admixtures obtained from industrial waste substances, red mud (RM) and silica fume (SF), had been used as the alternatives for cement and fine aggregate was fully replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand). An experimental examination of the compressive strength, water absorption, density of concrete, equivalent CO2 emission, and energy factor for environmental benefits with the comparison of RM on SF-based eco-friendly concrete mix of M30 grade was used. A binary and ternary blended cementitious system with RM and SM was created with twelve various mix proportions, varying from 0-20% by 5% increases. From the binary blended cementitious system (BBS), based on the observed mechanical characteristic of concrete it was found that the optimum level of RM was 15% and SF was 10 % by the volume of cement. Similarly, for the ternary blended cementitious system (TBS), the level of 10% RM and 10% SF in the cement mixture provides a much higher improvement in compression strength compared to the alternative trials. The negative sign implies that replacing cement with RM and SF reduces energy consumption (-1.91% to -6.97%) and CO2 emissions (-4.52% to -16.16%). The use of mineral admixtures such as RM and SM in supplementary cementitious materials results in a significant outcome and potential impact on the production of sustainable concrete that addresses environmental issues.