Jilvah-i hunar (Aug 2018)
A Study of Differences in Costume of the Goddess Anahita in Naqsh-e Rostam and Taq-e Bustan Relives
Rock relief was one of the best method to immortalize the Coronation in Sassanid Era which has resulted in a number of noticeable relives. Sassanid monarchs created many rock relives. These patterns represented the Religious beliefs and Political thought of Sassanid monarchs throughout four centuries. The Goddess Anahita was a part of this religious belief and depicting her on rock relief started from Narseh era. Present paper’s main goal is to study the view of Sassanid sculptors to the environmental situation in to creation of rock reliefs; and we have case studied Anahita’s costume in two of these reliefs. Climate is one of the most influential factors affecting the presentation of Anahita’s costume in Naqsh-e Rostam and Taq-e Bostan Relives. Anahita was wearing a warm dress that compatible with cold climate in Taq- Bostan which is in Kermanshah province, whiles this goddess wear in very thin and tight dress in Naqsh-e Rostam, which is due to warm and dry climate of Fars province, along with other religious factors. We should not neglect the religious belief and Zoroastrian religious texts descriptions that along with environmental factors such as climate, affect the representation of Anahita’s costume. Sassanid Art patrons and sculpture felt obligated to follow the Avesta’s description of Anahita’s costume and appearance. Present paper is trying to answer the fallowing question: why there are costume differences in goddess Anahita’s appearance in Naghsh-e Rostam and Taq-e Bustan? The hypothesis presented for such question is that, the most important reason of this costume difference in goddess Anahita is due to differences in climate and the patrons attention toward religious beliefs regarding the goddess.