Adequate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) improve child survival and growth. Globally, about 18 million babies are born to mothers aged 18 years or less and have a higher likelihood of adverse birth outcomes in India due to insufficient knowledge of child growth. This paper examined factors associated with IYCF practices among adolescent Indian mothers. This cross-sectional study extracted data on 5148 children aged 0–23 months from the 2015–2016 India National Family Health Survey. Survey logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with IYCF among adolescent mothers. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary feeding, minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency, and minimum acceptable diet rates were: 58.7%, 43.8%, 43.3%, 16.6%, 27.4% and 6.8%, respectively. Maternal education, mode of delivery, frequency of antenatal care (ANC) clinic visits, geographical region, child’s age, and household wealth were the main factors associated with breastfeeding practices while maternal education, maternal marital status, child’s age, frequency of ANC clinic visits, geographical region, and household wealth were factors associated with complementary feeding practices. IYCF practices among adolescent mothers are suboptimal except for breastfeeding. Health and nutritional support interventions should address the factors for these indicators among adolescent mothers in India.