Abstract Background Airways repair is critical to lung function following transplantation. We hypothesised that the stem cell factor (SCF) could play a role in this setting. Methods We studied 9 lung transplant recipients (LTx recipients) during their first year postgraft, and evaluated SCF mRNA expression in bronchial biopsy specimens using on-line fluorescent PCR and SCF protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum using ELISA. The expression of SCF receptor Kit was assessed using immunostaining of paraffin-embedded bronchial sections. Results SCF mRNA was highly expressed during the early postgraft period [Month (M)1-M3] (300% increase vs controls: 356 vs 1.2 pg SCF/μg GAPDH cDNA, p p Conclusion SCF and Kit are expressed in bronchial biopsies from lung transplant recipients irrespective of the clinical status of the graft. A role for these factors in tissue repair following lung transplantation is hypothesised.