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Improved islet recovery and efficacy through co-culture and co-transplantation of islets with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

PLoS ONE. 2018;13(11):e0206449 DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0206449

 

Journal Homepage

Journal Title: PLoS ONE

ISSN: 1932-6203 (Online)

Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)

LCC Subject Category: Medicine | Science

Country of publisher: United States

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, XML

 

AUTHORS


Anissa Gamble

Rena Pawlick

Andrew R Pepper

Antonio Bruni

Adetola Adesida

Peter A Senior

Gregory S Korbutt

A M James Shapiro

EDITORIAL INFORMATION

Peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 24 weeks

 

Abstract | Full Text

Islet transplantation is an established clinical procedure for select patients with type 1 diabetes and severe hypoglycemia to stabilize glycemic control. Post-transplant, substantial beta cell mass is lost, necessitating multiple donors to maintain euglycemia. A potential strategy to augment islet engraftment is the co-transplantation of islets with multipotent mesenchymal stem cells to capitalize upon their pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we examine the in vitro and in vivo effect of co-culturing murine islets with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs). Islets co-cultured with Ad-MSCs for 48 hours had decreased cell death, superior viability as measured by membrane integrity, improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and reduced apoptosis compared to control islets. These observations were recapitulated with human islets, albeit tested in a limited capacity. Recipients of marginal mouse islet mass grafts, co-transplanted with Ad-MSCs without a co-culture period, did not reverse to normoglycemia as efficiently as islets alone. However, utilizing a 48-hour co-culture period, marginal mouse islets grafts with Ad-MSCs achieved a superior percent euglycemia rate when compared to islets cultured and transplanted alone. A co-culture period of human islets with human Ad-MSCs may have a clinical benefit improving engraftment outcomes.