BackgroundLittle is known about the epidemiology of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN).MethodsWe conducted a nationwide epidemiological survey of Japanese children aged 1 to 15 years with HSPN. Children who were newly diagnosed with HSPN by biopsy between January 2013 and December 2015 were eligible for the survey to clarify the incidence of HSPN. We also conducted an institutional survey on kidney biopsy criteria and treatment protocols.ResultsA total of 353 of 412 institutions (85.7%) responded to the questionnaire. Of the 353 institutions, 174 reported to perform kidney biopsies at their institutions, and 563 children were diagnosed with HSPN. Considering the collection rate, the estimated incidence of biopsy-proven HSPN was 1.32 cases/100,000 children per year. The median age at biopsy was 7.0 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.2:1. The kidney biopsy criteria and treatment protocols for HSPN were as follows. Patients with acute kidney injury underwent biopsy at least one month after onset. For patients without kidney dysfunction, the timing for biopsy was determined by the amount of proteinuria. Regarding the treatment of HSPN, there were certain commonalities among the treatment protocols, they eventually differed depending on the institutions involved.ConclusionsThe incidence of biopsy-proven HSPN was 1.32 cases/100,000 children per year in Japan. The male-to-female ratio and date of diagnosis of HSPN were similar to those in previous studies. The kidney biopsy criteria and treatment protocols for HSPN varied among institutions. Further studies are warranted to establish an optimal treatment policy based on the prognosis.