The article examines the socio-political aspects of the development of the regional transport infrastructure. Its place and role in the formation of the unified national transport system is defined. The article is aimed at conceptualizing the policy of transport infrastructure development in the regions as a key direction of the state policy. The specification of its theoretical and doctrinal foundations and practical arrangements in relation to the internal and external realities and priorities of modern Russia is also one of the aims of the article. Based on the interdisciplinary methodology and the underlying theoretical and methodological approaches developed in the framework of modern political science, the author shows the dependence of the priorities of the state transport policy on the specific conditions of socio-economic development of the regions and current political situation. The author makes the conclusion about the importance of the following priorities of the state transport policy in modern Russia: transport development and logistics linkages between the regions, the active development of all types of transport, improvement of transport infrastructure.