Mağallaẗ Al-kūfaẗ Al-handasiyyaẗ (2018-08-01)

DISTRIBUTION OF SULFATE CONTENT AND ORGANIC MATTER IN AN-NAJAF AND AL-KUFA CITIES’ SOIL USING GIS

  • Sohaib K. Al-Mamoori,
  • Laheab A. Al-Maliki,
  • Hussain M. Hussain,
  • Mohammed J. Al-Ali

DOI
https://doi.org/10.30572/2018/kje/090308
Journal volume & issue
Vol. 9, no. 3
pp. 92 – 111

Abstract

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AN-Najaf city is located 61 meters above the sea level in the dry desert of Iraq. It is one of the most important cities in Iraq due to religious tourism and continuously developing urban areas by constructing multi-storey buildings, bridges and shopping malls. This study aims to create a mapping database for sulfate in An-Najaf soil (Najaf centred and Al-Kufa cities’ soil). To evaluate the spatial variability of data, 464 boreholes and in situ tests were selected and analysed using Geographic Information System ArcGIS 10.2.1. The adopted method consisted of four steps: (1) data collection; (2) geotechnical data georeferencing; (3) interpolation methods and (4) establishment of maps. Nine maps were produced for depths 0-35 m for sulfate content in soil. In addition to two maps for sulfate content in groundwater and organic matter content for depths 0-2. Results showed that all the study area and for depths 0-2 meter has very high sulfate content in the soil. Sulfate values varies between 0.36%- 14% where all the results were higher than the permissible limit which is 0.2%. The sulfate content decreases with the depth yet still effective in some areas. Therefore, precautions have to be adopt to avoid risks. One of the precautions is to use sulfate resistance Portland cement (SRPC) for all concrete works that have contact with soil. Groundwater sulfate content in the study area was ranging between 84-239 %. These values were ineffective because they are lower than the permissible limit, which is 1460%. The organic matter content values vary between 0.05-2.34, the greatest part of the study area was lower than the permissible limit 1% and therefore ineffective. The PH values indicate that all the study area was alkaline so it is uninfluential.

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