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Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Rural South Indian Women—Prevalence and Correlates: A Community-Based Study

Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice. 2020;11(01):078-083 DOI 10.1055/s-0039-1700595


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Journal Title: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice

ISSN: 0976-3147 (Print); 0976-3155 (Online)

Publisher: Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Society/Institution: Associacion Ayuda Enfermo Neuroquirurgico (Association for Helping Neurosurgical Sick People)

LCC Subject Category: Medicine: Internal medicine: Neurosciences. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry

Country of publisher: United States

Language of fulltext: English

Full-text formats available: PDF, HTML, ePUB



Manikandan Srinivasan (Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Wellcome Trust Research Laboratory, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India)

Mahendra M. Reddy (Department of Community Medicine, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, Karnataka, India)

Sonali Sarkar (Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India)

Vikas Menon (Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry (JIPMER), India)


Double blind peer review

Editorial Board

Instructions for authors

Time From Submission to Publication: 22 weeks


Abstract | Full Text

Background The burden of common mental disorders (CMDs) which includes depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders are on the rise in India. Women in rural areas form one of the high-risk groups with respect to CMDs due to their compromised status of living. Objective The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress, and the predictors to depression among women in rural Puducherry. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed in 2016, among women aged 18 to 59 years, residing in the rural area of Puducherry. Prevalence of CMDs was determined using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-21. Using a systematic random sampling method, women were interviewed in their houses. The socio-demographic characteristics along with risk factors for depression were captured using a semi-structured proforma. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of depression. Results A total of 301 women were surveyed and their mean age (SD) was 34.9 (10.2) years. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was found to be 15% (95% CI: 11.3–19.3), 10.6% (95% CI: 7.5–14.5), and 5% (95% CI: 3–8), respectively. Multivariable analysis identified that lesser education and living separately/divorced to be significant predictors for depression in these women. Conclusion About one in six adult women living in a rural area was found to be depressed, which is considerably high. This emphasizes the need for screening among women for common mental disorders in primary care settings, especially in rural areas so that early diagnoses happen and thus reduce the impact due to mental disability.