Frontiers in Neuroscience (Jan 2022)

Co-sparse Non-negative Matrix Factorization

  • Fan Wu,
  • Jiahui Cai,
  • Canhong Wen,
  • Haizhu Tan

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 15


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Non-negative matrix factorization, which decomposes the input non-negative matrix into product of two non-negative matrices, has been widely used in the neuroimaging field due to its flexible interpretability with non-negativity property. Nowadays, especially in the neuroimaging field, it is common to have at least thousands of voxels while the sample size is only hundreds. The non-negative matrix factorization encounters both computational and theoretical challenge with such high-dimensional data, i.e., there is no guarantee for a sparse and part-based representation of data. To this end, we introduce a co-sparse non-negative matrix factorization method to high-dimensional data by simultaneously imposing sparsity in both two decomposed matrices. Instead of adding some sparsity induced penalty such as l1 norm, the proposed method directly controls the number of non-zero elements, which can avoid the bias issues and thus yield more accurate results. We developed an alternative primal-dual active set algorithm to derive the co-sparse estimator in a computationally efficient way. The simulation studies showed that our method achieved better performance than the state-of-art methods in detecting the basis matrix and recovering signals, especially under the high-dimensional scenario. In empirical experiments with two neuroimaging data, the proposed method successfully detected difference between Alzheimer's patients and normal person in several brain regions, which suggests that our method may be a valuable toolbox for neuroimaging studies.