Objective. To characterize medical care and self-care actions in a population with diabetes in locations smaller than 100 000 inhabitants. Materials and methods. With information from the Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 100k (Ensanut 100k), two logistic regression models were obtained: not performing five basic actions in the last consultation and not taking priority self-care actions. Results. Having low schooling, belonging to the low economic stratum, and speaking indigenous language, increase the probability of not taking self-care actions. On the contrary, as age increases, the chances of self-care are reduced by 3%. Belonging to an indigenous household and the low tercile, increases the chances that health personnel will not perform the five basic actions during the consultation. Conclusion. It is essential that a diabetes control program be established that includes patient education and update courses for medical staff.