Healthcare (Jun 2023)

e-Health Interventions Targeting Pain-Related Psychological Variables in Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

  • Valeria Donisi,
  • Annalisa De Lucia,
  • Ilenia Pasini,
  • Marialuisa Gandolfi,
  • Vittorio Schweiger,
  • Lidia Del Piccolo,
  • Cinzia Perlini

Journal volume & issue
Vol. 11, no. 13
p. 1845


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There is growing evidence to support the potential benefit of e-Health interventions targeting psychosocial outcomes and/or pain-related psychological variables for chronic pain conditions, including fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). This systematic review aims at providing an in-depth description of the available e-Health psychological and/or multicomponent interventions for patients with FMS. Searches were made in PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PsycINFO up to 15 May 2023, finally including twenty-six articles. The quality of the included articles was medium–high (average quality assessment score of 77.1%). 50% of studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 13), and the majority of them focused exclusively on adult patients with FMS (n = 23) who were predominantly female. Four categories of e-Health modalities were identified: web-based (n = 19), mobile application (m-Health) (n = 3), virtual reality (VR) (n = 2), and video consulting (n = 2). Interventions were mainly based on the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach (n = 14) and mostly involved contact with a healthcare professional through different digital tools. Overall, a growing number of psychological and multicomponent interventions have been created and delivered using digital tools in the context of FMS, showing their potentiality for improving psychosocial outcomes and pain-related psychological variables. However, some digital tools resulted as underrepresented, and the literature on this topic appears highly heterogeneous precluding robust conclusions.